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El vino y su temperatura de servicio

17, agosto | Cultura del Vino | 65 Comentarios
El vino y su temperatura de servicio

Una de las preguntas más recurrentes en las muchas visitas que recibimos en la bodega hace alusión a la temperatura de servicio del vino.

–         ¿Es importante la temperatura a la que se bebe el vino?

–         No es importante, ¡es fundamental! Y debería ser de obligado cumplimiento para los hosteleros, porque de la adecuada temperatura del vino dependerá su valor…

Cuántas veces oímos- con la esperanza de que no lo demos por bueno- que “a temperatura ambiente los tintos, y los blancos muy fríos”, un cliché que nos hace fracasar y no apreciamos lo que cada botella encierra.

Escenario probable: Toledo; agosto; 40º a la sombra; bar del casco antiguo, plagado de piedras calentadas por el sol; copa inapropiada de vino (este es otro tema) de crianza a temperatura ambiente….

–         ¡Por Díos!, póngame una cerveza, la que sea, y rápido… Y luego, ponga este vino en una cubitera con hielo y agua.

–         Pero si es tinto…

–         Como si es azul, hágalo y ya.

Aunque, evidentemente, es una exageración, ocurre con mayor frecuencia de la que sería deseable, porque si cuidamos su temperatura, los vinos también son para el verano.

Sentido Común

Poniéndonos un poco más doctos, existen fundamentos científicos sobre la temperatura a la que se deben disfrutar los vinos. Todos sabemos que los elementos se comportan de diferente manera a ciertas temperaturas. Si clasificamos a los vinos por sus características, vemos que estos tienen diferentes elementos que los diferencian unos de otros:

–         Los vinos blancos son más ácidos que los tintos; los ácidos son muy desagradables a altas temperaturas. La temperatura más baja razonable para un vino viene dada por la naturaleza de sus aromas, su contenido en azúcar y por su estructura tánica, si bien para casi todos ellos se considera que unos 4º-5º C podría ser el límite inferior; por debajo de esta temperatura, los aromas pierden fuerza y expresividad.

Por el contrario, los aromas de madera, los tostados, los de crianza y los de reducción y desarrollo en botella son algo más esquivos, y no se perciben con claridad a temperaturas bajas. Habrá, por tanto, que tomar los blancos y rosados que hayan pasado por barrica y botella algo menos frescos, tal vez en la franja que va entre los 10º y los 12-14º C.

–         Los vinos tintos tienen más taninos que los blancos, los que se vuelven muy “duros” a bajas temperaturas: por debajo de los 10 grados nos dejan una sensación muy áspera en la boca, ya que aumentan su astringencia y sabor amargoso. Esta es la verdadera razón por la que no se sirven tan frescos como los blancos. Por tanto, deberemos servirlos a unas temperaturas superiores a los 10-14 grados, para conseguir su mejor tacto y equilibrio.

Eso sí: los tintos más directamente frutales, sencillos y menos tánicos -como muchos de los que elaboran por maceración carbónica (pero no todos, también los hay muy tánicos y estructurados)- pueden servirse a estas temperaturas y ello reforzará su encanto frutal. Los tintos más robustos, ricos en tanino y de mayor complejidad aromática, con notas de crianza, deberán servirse por encima de los 14-15º C y hasta los mencionados 17º-18º C, dependiendo de nuestros gustos, del entorno y de su estructura y aroma. Nada que ver con los 23º-24º grados de las copas en cualquier restaurante con buena calefacción…

–         Los vinos ligeros de aperitivo, como los cavas brut y los finos y manzanillas están bien como si fuesen blancos de crianza y media estructura, es decir, en torno a unos 7-10º C. Otros vinos generosos de aperitivo, como los amontillados y olorosos, están mejor algo menos frescos, situándolos en la franja de temperatura propia de los blancos más complejos y con más crianza: en torno a los 12-14º C.

–         Por último, los vinos de postre son un mundo aparte de gran riqueza y complejidad; es muy difícil dar leyes válidas, pues cada uno debe ser valorado individualmente. Aún así, es importante que nos olvidemos de la dichosa “temperatura ambiente” y que busquemos un equilibrio basado en sus diversas sensaciones: si tienen o no crianza, cual es su riqueza tánica (en el caso de los tintos dulces) o su contenido en azúcares.

 

Luís Vida, de Mundovino, en un artículo sobre el tema que nos ocupa, incluía este consejo: “para cualquiera que piense que esto son minucias y que, si el vino es bueno, cualquier temperatura vale, que haga la siguiente prueba: que ponga dos botellas de unos de sus tintos favoritos, una a temperatura ambiente y la otra a sus ideales 15-18º C. Después, que invite a algunos amigos a probar los vinos a ciegas para determinar si son el mismo o diferentes vinos, pidiéndoles después su valoración de ellos; los resultados le sorprenderán”.

Como decía Hemingway, “el vino es la bebida más civilizada del mundo“, por eso necesita de una metodología en todo lo que compete a su consumo, para que nada de lo que encierra se nos escape. Pero no hay que volverse loco, ni estar con el termómetro pegado a cada botella que vayamos a beber. A final, como tantas cosas en la vida, es aplicar el sentido común.

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